Long-exposure photography produces images that have an impressive, otherworldly look. Imagine a cascading waterfall frozen in place or stars trailing light across the midnight sky.
Long-exposure photography is not as tricky or advanced as it may appear. There are some basic principles that you can follow to create stunning photos.
What is long-exposure photography?
The long-exposure photography technique is also called slow shutter photography or time-exposure photography. Its roots can be traced back to the earliest days of photography when primitive technology meant that photographers were forced to expose an image for many hours to achieve any results on film.
Long-exposure photography is a technique that relies on the shutter being open for an extended period. The resultant images are characterized by a clear, sharp focus on stationary objects while blurring of moving subjects.
What is the relationship between shutter speed and long exposure?
The shutter speed is an essential concept in photography. It’s also the most crucial part of (the exposure triangle, which includes ISO, aperture, and shutter speed) in long-exposure photography. The shutter speed is how long the shutter stays open, exposing the digital sensor to light.
Long-exposure photographers use shutter speeds between 1/125th and 1/500th second. It allows more light to enter the camera and captures impressive images in low light, such as the night sky. The long shutter speed of a slow exposure also allows you to capture any camera shake caused by movement or vibrations. This can lead to a blurry image.
Four essential pieces of equipment for long-exposure photography
To take amazing long-exposure photographs, you will need a few essentials.
1. A DSLR camera. To get great long-exposure images, you must set up multiple settings in your camera. Consider investing in DSLR digital cameras with manual settings and slow shutter speeds. If you want shutter speeds greater than 30 seconds, a DSLR with bulb mode is the way to go. This lets you keep your shutter open as long as possible by holding down your camera’s button. High-end smartphones such as iPhones support mobile apps which add manual mode functionality. For instance, Adobe Lightroom includes a camera with PRO mode and produces RAW files. This allows greater control of long exposures.
2. Tripod. You can’t hold a camera steady with your hands, especially for more than a few moments. Many lenses and cameras have image stabilization tools, but these are only somewhat effective when exposing an image for a long time. Even a slight shake or movement can distort your intended effect. You can use a tripod to hold your camera steady and expose images for as long as desired. You can use bags of dried rice or sand to weigh down your tripod when it’s windy.
3. Remote shutter release. Even a slight movement when pressing the shutter on your camera may introduce unwanted motions to your long-exposure images. Remote shutter releases or cable releases allow you to press the camera button remotely without standing in front of the camera and holding the finger in place. It helps to reduce fatigue and eliminates movement so that you can capture better long-exposure shots. If you do not have a remote shutter, you can use a delay timer with the camera’s auto-time feature to get long, steady shots.
4. Neutral-Density Filter. Long exposures are best taken in low-light situations, but you can also take them when the sun shines. Add a neutral density filter (ND) to your lens to avoid overexposing images in bright light situations. The ND filter reduces how much light passes through your lens. The strength of ND filters depends on the amount of light and duration of exposure.
What are the best locations for long-exposure photography?
Location is critical in long-exposure photography. Most long-exposure photography landscape photographs use additional light to reveal unique features, such as star trails, cloud swirls, soft waves, and blurred waterfalls.
Explore different environments to find beautiful vistas from forests to deserts and even urban cityscapes. Search for light sources that will create light trails—for example, an endless stream of cars during rush hour or any other exciting source of motion.
How to set up your camera for long-exposure photography
Composing your photo is the first thing you should do after arriving at a scene for a long-exposure shot. Set your tripod and camera up, and then, using the viewfinder, fill in the frame as you like. You must then take several steps to ensure your photo is correctly exposed.
1. Focus. Lock the focus on your selected subject. A manual guide is recommended to ensure your topic does not move during the exposure. However, if you are using autofocus, press the button halfway to adjust the focus and lock it.
2. Expose. Take test shots in manual mode, experimenting with aperture and shutter speed. You can reduce your shutter speed if you are using an ND filter. For example, a 10-stop (the strongest) ND filter allows you to use a shutter that is 1,000x faster. Standard apertures for long-exposure images are between 7 and 13, while ISO is around 100. Before moving on, make sure you have taken a test shot to check that your static image is exposed correctly.
3. Bulb Mode. Switch the camera to bulb mode once your exposure has been set. This will increase your shutter speed beyond 30 seconds. Bulb mode can be selected while in manual mode.
4. Click to shoot! Once you have set up your camera, you are ready to click. To lock your camera’s shutter, click down on either the remote shutter release button or cable release. Click the button once more to close the shutter. The length of time the shutter remains open is dependent on several factors. Some apps like NDCalc will automate your calculation based on what you have learned from the test shot.